¿Cazar con armadura en la Europa medieval?

¿Cazar con armadura en la Europa medieval?


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Alguien me ha dicho que toda nobleza, cuando cazaban animales, lo hacía con armadura. Además, están convencidos de que las representaciones de cazadores de ropa normalmente no son nobles o llevan armadura debajo de la ropa ajustada.

Por tanto, me gustaría preguntar la verdad del asunto. ¿Conoce casos de nobleza de alto rango que caza animales peligrosos, con armadura y sin armadura? Se prefieren los casos escritos, ya que el arte puede interpretarse con mucha libertad.

Mencionaré que soy consciente de que se ha producido una caza con y sin armadura, no hay nada que le impida practicar cualquiera de los métodos. Algunas culturas parecen haber preferido cazar con armadura.


Es probable que cualquier caza representada en el arte medieval sea realizada por miembros de la nobleza, independientemente de si llevan armadura o no. El sitio web del Museo Metropolitano de Arte describe el uso de armaduras para cazar como "raro".

Aunque las armas y armaduras se asocian más comúnmente con la guerra, ambas se usaron en otros contextos, incluida la caza, los torneos y como disfraz de desfile ... Casi todos los tipos de armas se han usado en la caza, incluidos arcos, ballestas y armas de fuego, así como tipos especiales de espadas y lanzas. En raras ocasiones, se usaba armadura para cazar osos o jabalíes.… Por último, cabe mencionar también las armaduras para caballos y perros. Mientras que los caballos podían estar protegidos o adornados con armaduras en la mayoría de las ocasiones anteriores, las armaduras para perros eran raras y solo se usaban, si es que se usaban, para la caza y la guerra.


Armadura medieval

Armatura Medievale da Cavaliere completamente indossabile e funzionale. Armatura Medievale da Cavaliere comprende tutte le parti dell'armatura, che sono mostrati nell'immagine. Armatur.

Armadura de caballero medieval

Armatura Medievale da Cavaliere Armatura medievale - Europa occidental dal 1400. Riproduzione di una Armatura Europea della prima metà del 1400. Armatura Medievale da Cavaliere comprende.

Armadura de caballero medieval: lista para la batalla

Riproduzione di Armatura Medievale da Combattimento del 1400, l'armatura comprende tutte le parti dell'armatura, che sono mostrati nell'immagine: 1- Elmo Klappvisor, elmo da combattimento b.

Armadura de caballero medieval: lista para la batalla

Questa armatura è prodotta en Italia, fedele all'antica tradizione artigianale degli armaioli italiani, che dal Medioevo è stata tramandata da generazione in generazione e giunta fino ad.

Armadura Templaria

Quest'armatura Template Medievale da parata riprende i modelli del quindicesimo secolo richiamando la simbologia Templare, sia nell'elmo pentolare tipicamente usato dai crociati in Terra Santa sia.

Armadura de pared medieval

Armatura Medievale da muro composta dalle seguenti parti: 1- Elmo bacinetto, elmo chiuso realizzato manualmente in acciaio al carbonio pienamente indossabile, in uso alla cavalleria pesa.

Charles V Armor-Gold Finish-Marto

Carlo V armatura-finitura oro-MartoSebbene l'origine dell'armatura da combattimento risalga al periodo egizio, sviluppandosi con i Greci e i Romani, l'armatura medievale più conosciuta, formata da pia.

Armadura gótica alemana

Armatura Medievale Gotica completamente portatile e funzionale. Armatura Medioevale Gotica comprende tutte le parti dell'armatura, che sono mostrati nell'immagine. Armatura Medievale Gotica.

Armadura gótica alemana funcional

Armatura Gotica completamente portatile e funzionale. Armatura Gotica comprende tutte le parti dell'armatura, che sono mostrati nell'immagine. Armatura Gotica composta dalle seguenti parti.

Armadura teutónica medieval

Armatura templare completamente indossabile e funzionale. L'armatura templare, riprende i modelli quattrocenteschi, richiamando la simbologia dei Templari, sia nell'elmo (Gran Elmo) generalmente utili.

Armadura teutónica medieval

Armatura templare in acciaio scuro, pezzi bruniti, spessore compreso tra 1 e 1,2 mm. L'Armatura Templare è composta da: - Elmo templare - Elmo incrociato templare che offre una protezione completa della.

Armadura templaria

Riproduzione di un'armatura templare, riprende i modelli quattrocenteschi, richiamando la simbologia dei Templari, sia nell'elmo pentolare generalmente utilizzato dai Crociati en Terra Santa che nelle.

Armadura española del siglo XVI - marto

Armatura spagnola del XVI secolo, costruita sul modello di quelle di Carlo V e Filippo II oggi parte della collezione della Real Armeria di Madrid. L'armatura è realizzata in acciaio lucido, caratteri.

Grabado especial de armadura - marto

Anche se l'origine dell'armatura da combattimento risale al periodo egizio, sviluppandosi con Greci e Romani, l'armatura medievale più conosciuta, formata da piastre di acciaio o di ferro, collegate t.

Armadura medieval italiana | Armadura de caballeros

Armatura medievale composta da un gran Bacinetto da campo aperto, con coppo ogivato a cresta alta. La forma della visiera è angolata in mezzeria e sporgente all'altezza delle fessure oculari, con 1.

Armadura de caballeros

Armatura medievale composta da un elmetto da cavallo con coppo sferoide a cresta bassa. Ventaglia rialzata sul naso, agganciata a destra. Fessure di aerazione. Vista saliente sulla fronte, confess.

Armadura medieval - Armadura de torneo (decorativa)

Armatura da torneo con celata, en metallo rifinito decorato e con patina anticata con scudo di Riccardo I Cuor di Leone e lancia. * Finitura nera. * Decorazioni en oro. * Elmo templare c.

Traje de armadura de caballeros de lujo

Armatura composta da un gran Bacinetto da campo aperto, con coppo ogivato a cresta alta. La forma della visiera è angolata in mezzeria e sporgente all'altezza delle fessure oculari, con 15 fori di.

Armadura de Carlos V con grabado al ácido - Marto

Anche se l'origine dell'armatura da combattimento risale al periodo egizio, sviluppandosi con Greci e Romani, l'armatura medievale più conosciuta, formata da piastre di acciaio o di ferro, legate tra.

Armadura Carlos V repujada - Marto

Anche se l'origine dell'armatura da combattimento risale al periodo egizio, sviluppandosi con Greci e Romani, l'armatura medievale più conosciuta, formata da piastre di acciaio o di ferro, collegate t.

Armadura Medieval Escudo León Rampante

Anche se l'origine dell'armatura da combattimento risale al periodo egizio, sviluppandosi con Greci e Romani, l'armatura medievale più conosciuta, formata da piastre di acciaio o di ferro, collegate t.

Armadura de torneo con lanza - Marto

Anche se l'origine dell'armatura da combattimento risale al periodo egizio, sviluppandosi con Greci e Romani, l'armatura medievale più conosciuta, formata da piastre di acciaio o di ferro, legate tra.

Armadura medieval usable

Armatura "all'italiana", caratterizzata da pezze dalla superficie liscia e tondeggiante e composta da un elmetto da cavallo con coppo sferoide a cresta bassa. Ventaglia rialzata sul naso, agganciat.

Armadura de caballero medieval

Armatura composta da un elmetto da cavallo, Presenta una visiera intera elaborata, con bordo superiore coronato e gabbia sporgente con elementi curvi. Elmi come questo non venivano utilizzati p.

Armadura medieval - Armadura decorativa

Armatura medievale composta da un elmo a coppo alto con cresta e fessura oculare. Ventaglia munita di fessure verticali di aerazione, che danno luogo a una specie di ingabbiatura. Gorgiera da colle.

Armadura de caballero medieval, armadura italiana medieval

Armatura medievale con rifiniture in ottone, composta da un elmo dotato di fessure di aerazione con coppo sferoide a cresta bassa e ventaglia sul naso agganciata a destra. Vista saliente sulla fron.

Armadura Teutónica Medieval

Armatura ornamentale che riproduce un modello "alla tedesca" del XV-XVI secolo e per questo chiamata "teutonica", riconoscibile dalle pezze rifinite con angoli e guglie aguzze. l'armatura proposta.

Armadura medieval (antigua) - Armadura medieval de combate funcional

Armatura composta da un elmetto da cavallo a coppo alto con cresta e visiera sana con fessura oculare e tesa mobile e sporgente a riparo degli occhi. Ventaglia con rosetta di aerazione. Gorgiera da.

Armadura medieval para Dauphin (sin casco)

Armatura Medievale Dauphin (senza Elmo) - scarpe: G130.

Armadura medieval para torneo

Armatura medievale da torneo appartenuta al conte Ulrich IX signore di Matsch (1435-1481), capitano generale del Tirolo e realizzata dai Negroli di Milano. Oggi conservata al castello di Churburg i.

Historia de la armadura medieval

Armatura medievale storica composta di celata alla veneziana a coppo alto, segnata da una costola mediana tra la linea frontale e la nuca lasciando il viso del tutto scoperto (apertura a U rovescio.

Armadura de caballero medieval, Armadura medieval

Armatura medievale appartenuta a Federico I, principe elettore del Palatinato, detto il Vittorioso (1425-1476) e realizzata grazie alla colaborazione tra vari armaioli milanesi (Faerno, Negroni, M.

Armadura medieval usable

Armatura medievale modello "Federico V", composta da un gran Bacinetto da campo aperto, con coppo ogivato a cresta alta. La forma della visiera è angolata en mezzeria e sporgente all'altezza delle.

Armadura de caballeros - Edad Media

Armatura medievale composta di celata a coppo alto, con apertura facciale a T, contornata da una barretta di rinforzo a sezione rettangolare. Petto con resta e rondella da bracciale allacciato medi.

Armadura Templaria

Armatura Templare ornamentale a piastre completa da parata riprende i modelli del quindicesimo secolo richiamando la simbologia Templare sia nell'elmo pentolare tipicamente usato dai crociati in Te.

Armadura Templaria - Marto

Armatura templare - Armatura da parata templare, armatura decorativa, modelli quattrocenteschi della simbologia templare, elmo utilizzato dai crociati en Terra Santa, entrambi nella decorazione del pe.

Armadura medieval

Armatura composta da un elmetto da cavallo con coppo sferoide a cresta bassa. Ventaglia rialzata sul naso, agganciate. Fessure di aerazione. Gorgiera da colletto e guardagorgiera petto da piede a.

Armadura medieval

Armatura ornamentale che riproduce un tipico modello "all'italiana" del XV-XVI secolo riconoscibile dalle pezze con superficie liscia e tondeggiante. l'armatura proposta è caratterizzata da un elmo.

Barra móvil Armor

Armatura ornamentale che riproduce un tipico modello "all'italiana" del XV-XVI secolo riconoscibile dalle pezze con superficie liscia e tondeggiante, allestita in maniera originale per fungere da m.

Armadura medieval

Armatura medievale ornamentale, composta da un elmo a coppo alto con cresta e fessura oculare. Ventaglia munita di fessure verticali di aerazione, che danno luogo a una specie di ingabbiatura. .

Armadura de escritorio (acabado oscuro) - Armadura en miniatura

Armatura da tavolo in lamiera di ferro interamente modellata a mano, provvista di scudo e alabarda e di base in legno sagomato che funge da piedistallo. Versione con finitura scura. Altezza.

Armadura de escritorio (acabado ligero) - Armadura en miniatura

Armatura da tavolo in lamiera di ferro interamente modellata a mano, provvista di scudo e alabarda e di base in legno sagomato che funge da piedistallo. Versione con finitura chiara. Altezz.

Armadura medieval

Armatura Medievale da Cavaliere Armatura medievale - Europa occidental dal 1400. Riproduzione di una Armatura Europea della prima metà del 1400. Armatura Medievale da Cavaliere comprende tutte.

Armadura medieval funcional para proteger el cuerpo de guerreros y combatientes. Nuestra armadura medieval están hechos exclusivamente a mano. Armadura realista e igual a la histórica original, producimos cualquier armadura (armadura histórica y de fantasía), por favor envíe los dibujos de la armadura a realizar, estimaciones de trabajo.

Armadura medieval, réplica de armadura de caballero medieval. Nuestras réplicas hechas a mano de armaduras de caballeros medievales seguramente complacerán a cualquier coleccionista. Fieles reproducciones históricas de museo, histórico local, armaduras de combate.

La artesanía permite controlar el grosor del acero, distribuyendo el grosor, luego el acero es más grueso en las partes sometidas a combate, y más fino en la espalda por no tener la armadura demasiado pesada. Las dimensiones son personalizadas

Amplia gama de armaduras medievales portátiles, reproducciones fieles de armaduras históricas. Armaduras de la Edad Media, armaduras para museos, edificios históricos, armaduras, reproducciones de combate para resistir golpes, exposición a armaduras ligeras, armaduras de fantasía y modelos a medida suministrados por los clientes. Serie de armaduras de caballero medieval, tienen las más magníficas de Europa durante los siglos XIII, XV, XVI, XVII, muchas de las originales se reproducen y se conservan en los museos más famosos.

Armadura de caballero. Incluso los caballos se desarrollaron con adornos de placas de acero para reparar las lanzas y armas de la infantería. Además de brindar protección, esto lo hizo más impresionante e intimidante para el ciclista. También se utilizaron ornamentos elaborados como armadura de desfile.


¿Las cuerdas del arco mojadas son un hecho o un mito?

En la batalla de Crecy, el cronista Jean de Vanette describe un aguacero repentino que empapó las cuerdas de la ballesta genovesa. Como resultado de estar mojadas, se decía que las ballestas genoveses habían sido ineficaces contra los arcos largos ingleses, mientras que los ingleses quitaron las suyas durante la lluvia, W. Rose. Una cuerda de ballesta no se puede quitar fácilmente. En su libro European Ballestas, Josef Alm cree improbable que las cuerdas de los arcos mojadas afectaran el resultado, y puede haber sido una excusa utilizada por los genoveses para explicar su derrota. Cita a Payne-Gallwey, quien sumergió durante 24 horas una cuerda de arco impregnada con cera y descubrió que no había absorbido agua y que podía utilizarse perfectamente.

Sin embargo, Payne-Gallwey también menciona dos tipos de pruebas realizadas que especula sobre las cuerdas sueltas de las ballestas utilizadas en Crecy y estas cuerdas más sueltas se volvieron menos efectivas en sus pruebas. Sin embargo, especula que el arco largo inglés tenía un mayor alcance y podía disparar más flechas que el de los genoveses. El texto de esto se da a continuación.

`` Si bien se han arrojado muchas dudas sobre la afirmación de que las ballestas de los genoveses no actuaron en esta ocasión, debido a que sus cuerdas se aflojaron por el clima húmedo, es posible que el incidente haya ocurrido, sin que, sin embargo, influya en ninguna medida en el resultado de la batalla.

La cuerda podría fácilmente haberse vuelto menos eficaz de lo habitual por la fuerte lluvia que cayó justo antes de la batalla y por el sol brillante que se sabe que sucedió a la lluvia.

Esta combinación de agua y calor ciertamente relajaría en cierto grado las cuerdas de las ballestas utilizadas en la época de Crecy, si estuvieran descubiertas, y las haría demasiado flojas para ser de un buen servicio, hasta que pudieran ser removidas de los arcos. para acortarlo retorciéndolo y luego remplazarlo, todo lo cual implicaría, por supuesto, tiempo y cuidado.

Debe recordarse que los arcos de los ballesteros genoveses en Crecy eran sin duda compuestos, hechos de madera, cuerno, tendones y cola, siendo el arco de acero de última introducción.

El arco compuesto era recto, por lo que su cuerda estaba fijada a él en una condición necesariamente bastante floja, por lo que el hilo que compone su cuerda, al estar más o menos suelto, podía absorber humedad.

Por otro lado, los hilos que componían la cuerda fuertemente tensada de una ballesta de acero, estaban empaquetados juntos, y en este caso la cuerda estaba siempre untada densamente, tanto por dentro como por fuera, con cera de abejas para preservarla, era impermeable a la agua.

Para probar el asunto, he hundido una ballesta de acero en un tanque de agua durante un día y una noche y no he encontrado ninguna alteración apreciable en la tensión de su cuerda. También coloqué en el agua una ballesta con una cuerda relativamente suelta, como las que creo que usaron los genoveses en Crecy, y descubrí que después de media hora de inmersión, la aplicación de una palanca para doblar el arco hizo que la cuerda posteriormente estirar la culata una pulgada más allá de su posición adecuada, su tensión y la consiguiente eficacia, perdiéndose así.

La conclusión general es que aunque el agua puede haber tenido un efecto, el mayor número de arqueros, la velocidad de disparo más rápida del arco largo, el mayor alcance del arco largo y la falta de pavise para que los ballesteros cubrieran detrás significaron que los genoveses fueron derrotados con picaduras de arco mojadas que tuvieron poco impacto.

Abarcar es el término que se usa para describir tirar hacia atrás de la cuerda de la ballesta. Generalmente se usaba un mecanismo de bloqueo para que las manos del usuario pudieran tirar de la cuerda hacia atrás y se pudiera cargar el cerrojo, aunque en el siglo XI se describe cómo el usuario se acuesta de espaldas con un pie en cada uno de los brazos del arco y tirando de la cuerda hacia ellos, a lo largo del timón en el que una ranura sostiene flechas cortas y gruesas.

Como tomó algún tiempo atravesar la ballesta, fue efectivo cuando había una cubierta dura, como en un edificio, en otros lugares se usaban escudos como el Pavise para proteger al usuario.

A medida que los arcos se hicieron más fuertes, se desarrollaron mecanismos más avanzados para tirar de la cuerda. Los estribos pueden haber sido de uno o dos pies. Se registra que los estribos de un pie y dos pies se fabricaron en la Torre de Londres a fines del C13, y en 1301 Eduardo I envió 3000 pernos para ballestas de dos pies, 5,000 para ballestas de un pie a Linlithgow, y en 1307 Edward I encargué 100 ballestas de estribo de un pie y 40 de dos pies, Gary G. Ball. En 1321 Marino Sanuto, un ventian conocido como Torsello entregó una lista de armas para una cruzada propuesta y enumera ballestas con arcos de madera y estribos de dos pies, M. Jahns, G. Kohler. Los inventarios en Dover en 1344 y 1366 registran ballestas de estribo de uno y dos pies, Gary G. Ball.

En la segunda mitad del siglo XII se desarrolló el cinturón extensible o Samson, que consiste en un gancho sujeto a un cinturón, donde la ballesta se gira con la ranura hacia el usuario, se coloca un pie en el estribo, el usuario se inclina o se inclina sobre una rodilla, y las garras del gancho de extensión se colocan sobre la cuerda, el usuario se endereza o se pone de pie usando su cuerpo para tirar de la cuerda hacia atrás. El cinturón de extensión fue popular y se siguió utilizando durante los siglos XIV y XV.

Gancho de ballesta del castillo de Soborg, Dinamarca, Museo Nacional, Copenhague, Dinamarca.

Una adaptación de la correa extensible y la garra fue usar una polea, de modo que el cable pasara de la correa extensible a una polea que se enganchaba a la cuerda y luego se enganchaba al extremo de la cultivadora. Estos tipos de ballestas se llamaron Turni Balistarii y Arbalests a tour y se mencionaron en el siglo XIII. En 1301 Edward solicité un recorrido con ballestas para la defensa de Linlithgow.

Conejos como ballesteros, Romance de Alexander MS Bodl 264 por el iluminador flamenco Jehan de Grise y su taller 1338-44 81v, Bodleian Library, Oxford, Inglaterra.

En el siglo XIV, la palanca de pie de cabra se desarrolló con un mango de madera y garras de hierro, y evolucionó para estar hecha completamente de hierro. Funciona enganchándose a la cuerda y tirando de una palanca para tirar de la cuerda. Estaba apalancado contra una barra de hierro que pasaba a través del timón detrás de la cerradura.

Izquierda y centro: ballesta de pie de cabra, derecha: gancho de extensión, Museo Nacional de Copenhague, Dinamarca.

Ballesta de pie de cabra C15, Museo Adleturm, Dortmund, Alemania.

Ballestero usando una palanca de pie de cabra para extender el arco mientras está detrás de un pavise, Alto Rin Alemania 1420-40 Zúrich Zentralbibliothek ZBZ Rh hist 33b F 99v.

Las ballestas de molinete se mencionaron en Acre en 1239 y Piacenza en 1269, una ballesta de molinete, 'balista ad turnum' se enumeró como hecha en la Torre de Londres a finales del C13, Gary G. Ball. En el siglo XV se utilizó un molinete con cabrestante en Inglaterra y Francia. Payne-Gallwey da una fecha de 1370 para la introducción de la ballesta de arco de acero y el molinete.

El dispositivo de extensión más poderoso fue el 'cabrestante alemán' o cranequin con ruedas dentadas y un estante de dientes. La primera ilustración de un cranequin es 1373, Gary G. Ball.

Izquierda: Austria Viena Armería ballesta cranequin sur de Alemania C15.

Derecha: Austria Vienna Armory ballesta cranequin start C16.

En el siglo XIV, se mencionan cinturones extensibles hechos de piel de buey con ganchos y anillos en Frankfurt am Main, B. Rathgen.

Izquierda: ballestero C14, St Florent Saint Sepulcre, Niederhaslach, Francia.

Derecha: Hombre con ballesta de Luttrell Psalter, 1325-35, Biblioteca Británica, Inglaterra.

Ballesteros con gancho de Queen Mary Salterio Inglaterra 1310-20.

Carga de ballesta, Romance of Alexander, 1338-1344, Bodleian Library, Oxford, Inglaterra.

Ballesteros que utilizan un gancho de extensión de una sola garra y empujan la pierna hacia abajo para extender la ballesta. Biblioteca Nacional de la República Checa CNM XXIII C124 Velislavova Bible f118r 1325-1349.

Ballesteros que se extienden con un gancho de 2 garras, 1275-99 Northern Franc, Morgan Library M969 Biblia con prólogos f150r-2.

Ballesteros, uno mostrado con una ballesta extendida de pierna levantada, Wurttembergische Landesbibliothek WLB HB XIII 6 Weltchronik & amp Marienleben 1300-50 Austria.

Pintura tardía de C15 de la batalla de Crecy 1346, Royal Armouries, Leeds, Inglaterra. Tenga en cuenta que muestra armaduras, armas y ballestas en el momento en que se pintó en lugar de en el momento de la batalla.

El uso de estos avanzados mecanismos de expansión hizo de la ballesta un arma poderosa pero lenta. Payne-Gallwey describe disparar un arco de asedio del siglo XV de 3 pies y 2 pulgadas de largo, con un perno de 3 onzas de peso y 14 pulgadas de largo, una distancia de 460 yardas. A las 60 yardas envió un rayo a través de una tabla de trato de 3/4 de pulgada de grosor. El peso total requerido para estirar la cuerda de su arco de 7 pulgadas con su molinete portátil fue de 1,200 libras, o más de media tonelada.

Broche de ballesta hallado en la segunda mitad de la plaza Wenceslao C14-15, museo de la ciudad, Praga, República Checa.

El Papa Inocencio II convocó en Cuaresma 1139 II un concilio general, celebrado en el y celebrado en la basílica de Letrán. Al menos quinientos, se reunieron en Roma. Uno de ellos venía de Oriente, el patriarca de Antioquía, pero era latino. Con la presidencia del Papa, el concilio comenzó el 2 de abril y parece haber terminado antes del 17 de abril. Se promulgaron una serie de cánones sobre la reforma de la iglesia, incluida la prohibición de las justas y el uso de arqueros y ballestas contra los cristianos.

"14. Prohibimos por completo, además, esas abominables justas y torneos en los que los caballeros se unen de común acuerdo y se comprometen precipitadamente a mostrar su destreza física y su audacia, y que a menudo resultan en muertes humanas y peligro para las almas. Si alguno de ellos muere en estas ocasiones, aunque no se le niegue la penitencia y el viático cuando los solicite, se le privará de un entierro en la iglesia ".

"29. Prohibimos bajo anatema ese arte asesino de ballesteros y arqueros, que odia a Dios, que se emplee contra cristianos y católicos de ahora en adelante".

La ballesta se diferencia de un arco en la capacidad de retener la energía potencial del arco suspendido hasta que se suelta mediante un gatillo. Los primeros arcos tenían una muesca en el timón o la culata y la cuerda se tiraba hacia atrás y se empujaba hacia la ranura. Para disparar el arco, un gatillo empujaría la cuerda fuera de la ranura.

Incrustaciones con ranura para sujetar el perno de ballesta, Museo Nacional, Copenhague, Dinamarca.

Las culatas de ballesta que se muestran arriba son para una ballesta y una ballesta para niños. El arco se habría asentado en la muesca de la izquierda y el mecanismo de liberación era un pasador que empujaba la cuerda hacia arriba.

Se desarrolló un mecanismo más elaborado con una tuerca que tenía un segmento cortado para sostener la cuerda. La nuez estaba hecha de madera, marfil, hueso o metal. No se permite que la tuerca se mueva hasta que el gatillo permita su rotación y la liberación de la cuerda para impulsar el perno hacia adelante.

Piezas internas de ballesta, tuercas, Museo Nacional, Copenhague, Dinamarca

Sin una cuerda de arco, los brazos del arco generalmente se arquean hacia adelante, por lo que cuando se encorda, el arco está bajo tensión.

El arco de una ballesta originalmente era de madera y desde mediados del siglo XII se usaban arcos de cuerno, copiados de los arcos de Asia, con un núcleo de madera y el dorso de una gruesa capa de tendones unidos por cola de pescado, generalmente carecían de la cuerno en el vientre, véase Josef Alm. Los pegamentos naturales requieren un tiempo de secado de 6 a 12 meses y pueden contribuir a que los arcos compuestos sean el doble del precio de los arcos de madera, Gary G. Ball.

En 1321 Marino Sanuto, un ventian conocido como Torsello entregó una lista de armas para una cruzada propuesta y enumera ballestas con arcos de madera, estribos de dos pies, y que los arcos compuestos eran mejores en áreas secas que en países con climas húmedos, M. Jahns, G . Kohler.

Gary G. Ball da la primera fecha registrada de un arco de acero como 1314 y Payne-Gallwey da una fecha de 1370 para el inicio del uso de arcos de acero en ballestas, pero otros autores parecen favorecer una fecha posterior para el arco de acero. y solo parecen haberse vuelto más comunes a principios del C15.

1382 La ordenanza de caza alemana ordena al maestro hereditario de la caza que entregue al Emperador en su visita, una ballesta con un arco de tejo, un timón de arce, una nuez de marfil y un hilo de seda, G. Landau.

Desde principios del siglo XV se empezaron a utilizar arcos metálicos, pero la mayoría de los tipos de arcos utilizados continuaron siendo los arcos de madera y compuestos.

Un arco de madera alemán en el Museo Nacional de Copenhague, Dinamarca

Ballesta con arco de madera, C14-15, Museo Nacional, Zurich. Suiza

Ballesta de arco de madera de finales de C14, Stadt Museum, Colonia, Alemania

Ballesta de arco compuesto, con ballena, C16, Stadt Museum, Colonia, Alemania

Ballesta de arco de acero, Museo Bayerisch, Munich, Alemania

Ballesta de arco de acero, C16, Stadt Museum, Colonia, Alemania

Los pernos de ballesta variaban en forma para diferentes propósitos. Los pernos de 35 cm o menos tenían su centro de gravedad a un tercio del camino a lo largo del eje desde la cabeza. Los pernos más largos estaban a una cuarta parte del camino a lo largo, W. Boeheim. La parte trasera del eje de la flecha se hacía a menudo del mismo grosor que la cuerda, Payne-Gallwey. No hay evidencia de que los pernos tuvieran culatines como las flechas. El término disputa surgió debido a los cuatro lados a menudo en cabezas afiladas y desafiladas.

Museo Bayerisch, Munich, Alemania.

Los pernos de guerra a menudo tenían enchufes y puntas cortas y pesadas de sección transversal romboidal en el siglo XIV. También se utilizaron puntas largas como dardos con espigas. Las flechas de ballesta más pesadas no han tenido vuelos, las más ligeras podrían tener dos o tres vuelos espirales rectos y ocasionales de plumas de ave, pergamino, rodajas de madera o láminas delgadas de cobre, W. Boeheim. Los vuelos en espiral se realizaron en Frankfurt am Main en 1349, B. Rathgen.

Pernos de ballesta de Praga 1430-60, Armería de Viena, Austria

Perno de ballesta de los comandantes de Praga 1430-60, Armería de Viena, Austria.

Cabezas de los pernos de ballesta del Museo Nacional de Copenhague, Dinamarca.

Los pernos se transportaban en barriles, y en el norte de Alemania y Dinamarca se calculó que un barril contenía 800 pernos, Historisk Tidsskrift. Los gascones bajo Eduardo I en 1283 trajeron consigo 70.000 tornillos en 29 barriles y 12 cestas, Gary G. Ball.

Flechas con punta de media luna para su transporte en barril. Romance de Alexander MS Bodl 264 por el iluminador flamenco Jehan de Grise y su taller 1338-44 123v.

Cabezas de perno en forma de media luna

Los pernos de arco transversal con cabezas en forma de media luna y múltiples puntas fueron descritos por Payne-Gallwey como & quottornillos para matar pájaros grandes& quot. Los pernos de cuchillo Fox, con cabezas muy anchas (15-27 cm de ancho) diseñados para trampas, se pueden ver en el Museo Nórdico de Estocolmo, Suecia. Josef Alm muestra una imagen del manual de caza de Tantzern, 1686, impreso en Copenhague, que muestra una ballesta trampa con una amplia cabeza en forma de media luna. Se cree que una punta estrecha puede atravesar un pájaro o un animal pequeño, mientras que una forma de media luna propagaría el impacto. Los tornillos sin filo también se utilizaron para animales pequeños y pájaros. Una cabeza en forma de media luna también puede evitar que el perno se entierre en un suelo blando y se pierda. Otras teorías para las cabezas de media luna se refieren a los aparejos de tiro en los barcos, aunque el giro impartido a los pernos puede hacer que esto sea imposible.

Pernos de caza del Museo Nacional, Copenhague, Dinamarca.

Perno de fuego, perno de ballesta de Praga 1430-60, Armería de Viena, Austria.

A mediados del C13, John Malemont, el fabricante de peleas en jefe de Inglaterra, fabricaba 25.000 tornillos al año y se esperaba que hiciera 100 tornillos al día por los que le pagaban 7 1/2 dy 3 por emplumarlos, Gary G. Ball. Se necesitaron pernos en grandes cantidades, en 1277 se suministraron 150.000 ballestas a Gales del Sur, 1282 Bristol suministró 14.000 ballestas a Rhuddlan, 10,00 a Chester y 10.000 a Camarthen, y 4.000 para la flota naval, en 1283 el ejército inglés en Anglesey equipado con 170.000 tornillos, Gary G. Ball.

Cabezas de perno con caras cuadradas

Payne-Gallwey afirma que estos pernos se usaron contra oponentes blindados Otros tornillos tenían cabezas cuadradas con cuatro pequeñas puntas, una en cada esquina de la cabeza, de modo que no rebotaran en la armadura, sino que daban un golpe directo y aplastante a los hombres montados que llevaban corazas y cascos, contra los cuales el extremo de un un proyectil afilado podría romperse, doblarse o desviarse.

Pernos de caza del Museo Nacional, Copenhague, Dinamarca.

Cazar pájaros usando un perno sin filo (en otras partes del manuscrito se pueden ver pernos afilados con cabezas negras afiladas con púas). Romance de Alexander MS Bodl 264 por el iluminador flamenco Jehan de Grise y su taller 1338-44 95r.

Perno romo utilizado para la caza con ballesta, Manesse Codex 1305-1340.

Muchos países de Europa alentaron a sus poblaciones a disparar en campos de tiro con arco y en competiciones. Disparar al popinjay, un pájaro o un loro de colores brillantes, era una competencia popular, P. Sixl. La palabra popinjay proviene de la palabra francesa para Parrot, papegai, Jim Bradbury.

Disparar al Popinjay probablemente se remonta al menos al siglo XIII. El Gran Maestre de Prusia en 1354 instaló en cada ciudad un árbol o poste de 7-17 m de altura en la parte superior del cual se colocó el popinjay. Se disparaban pernos romos al popinjay, y quien ganaba se llamaba el 'rey tirador', y recibía el premio de una cadena de plata a la que se ataba un loro dorado que podía usar en los festivales durante un año, y si lo ganaba tres veces seguidas pudo quedárselo, TF Troels-Lund.

Stadt Museum, Colonia, Alemania

Bolsa de ballesta y peleas, St Florent Saint Sepulcre C14, Niederhaslach, Francia

Los carcaj sostienen los pernos de la ballesta para el operador, y generalmente estaban hechos de cuero, algunos están representados o existen en los museos con pieles. Los pernos de ballesta parecen haber sido colocados apuntando hacia arriba, aunque hay varias imágenes que muestran los pernos apuntando hacia abajo. Los carcaj son a menudo más anchos en la base, probablemente para acomodar los pernos y los vuelos.

Estuche para cerrojo de ballesta C14-15, Museo Nacional, Zúrich. Suiza

Ballestero, Bibliotheque Municipal de Lyon BM PA 30 Cy commencent les grans croniques de la genealogie des roys de France f210v 1380 Francia

Izquierda: carcaj de perno de ballesta Austria C15, Armería de Viena, Austria

Derecha: carcaj de perno de ballesta en el sur de Alemania 1500, Armería de Viena, Austria

Ballestas utilizadas en la caza del jabalí Gaston Phoebus Libro de la caza 1405 Bibliotheque Nationale France

Guerreros husitas con ballestas y mayal, C15, museo de la ciudad de Praga, República Checa

The Genoese gained a reputation for crossbowmen and their skills which developed from the use of the crossbow in naval warfare on the Italian galleys. Genoese crossbowmen captured by the Milanese had one eye put out and one hand cut off, Gary G. Ball. The Genoese were allies of France and crossbowmenn were recruited and fought accross Europe, and as early as 1099 were said to have been at the siege of Jerusalem, Payne-Gallwey.

The crossbowmen were hired and paid by the Republic of Genoa and had to swear an alleigence to them. The Genoese crossbowmen were always under the control of the Republic of Genoa and could not be under an independant flag and so were not strictly mercenaries and were sometimes sent to fight for allies without receiving a fee, but the Republic of Genoa bearing the costs. When the crossbowmen were employed, they had strict contracts that would be adhered to, but also those that they employed had strict terms that dictated their sponser should pay for anyone who refused to do his job or deserted. Each Genoese crossbowmen was also equipped in addition to their crossbow and 20 bolts, with a helm, body armour, mail armour, a dagger, and a Pavise held by their squire for defence. The crossbow bolts were made by Both bullets were a guild of craftsmen called quarellari.

At the naval battle of Sluys in 1340, the French were said to have had 20,000 Genoese crossbowmen, but were defeated by the Enlish longbows of Edward III.

Crossbowman on board ship, Luttrell Psalter, 1325-35, British Library, England

Siege of Acre shows crossbowmen and Pavise, from Chroniques de France ou de St. Denis end C14

At the battle of Crecy in 1346, the Genoese led by Ottone Doria, is given variously as 2-6,000, but they lacked their protective shields which were in the baggage train that was still on route. The pavesarii held shields, and there were around three crossbowmen to each pavesarii, so they would probably take turns to shoot from behind the shields, whilst being protected when spanning the crossbow, David Nicolle. Lacking this protective cover they were outshot by the English longbowmen of Edward III. Payne-Gallwey speculates that the Genoese crossbows did not have the range of the English longbows, regardless of the impact of the rain on the crossbow strings, and took a heavy toll from the greater rate that arrows could be shot. The Genoese crossbowmen retreated, and were run down by the advancing French cavalry. Ottone Doria was killed but it is unknown if he died from an English arrow or a French knight.

Whilst spanning the crossbow the crossbowmen was vulnerabe to return missiles, and so often a shields or Pavise was used. This were large enough for the crossbowmen to shelter behind, then to emerge from behind to shoot. As well as being used in large battles, they also allowed crossbowmen to attempt to approach fortifications that were under siege.

In the 15th Century the pavise was built with a central ridge that stengthened the whole shield.

A 'Storm Shield' thought to be from Southern Germany, from National Museum, Copenhagen Denmark.

A 'Storm Shield' showing a hole through which bolts could be shot, from National Museum, Copenhagen Denmark.

A 'Storm Shield' allowing viewing, from National Museum, Copenhagen Denmark.

A 'Storm Shield' with two metal spikes allowing it to be planted into the ground, from National Museum, Copenhagen Denmark.


Medieval Falconry and Hawking

Medieval Falconry and Hawking took advantage of trained birds of prey to hunt small wild game such as squirrels and rabbits, and other birds.

A falconer would fly a falcon, an Austringer, a hawk (Accipiter), or an eagle (Águila).

Falconry became a regulated, revered, and popular sport and status symbol among the nobles and the clergy of medieval Europe. In some religious orders, falcons were even taken into religious services.

Falcons were so highly valued that they were worth más than their weight in gold.

History of Falconry

It’s believed that falconry’s art may have begun in Mesopotamia in approximately 2,000 BC. With cases also found in northern Altai, western Mongolia (for Mongol tribes, the falcon was a symbolic bird). Figures of a falconer on horseback were also described on Kyrgyz’s rocks in Central Asia dating back to the 7th century AD.

Falconry was introduced to Europe probably around AD 400 when the Huns and Alans invaded from the east. It’s believed that Frederick II of Hohenstaufen (King of Sicily, Germany, and the Roman Empire) obtained firsthand knowledge of Arabic falconry when he got a copy of the Arabic author Moamyn‘s manual on falconry and had it translated into Latin by Theodore of Antioch. Moamyn’s work is largely based on the Kitāb al-ṭuyūr (كتاب الطيور), the Book of Birds or Book of flight cycles (patterns) of Birds), a more extensive work by al-Ghiṭrīf ibn Qudāmah al-Ghassānī from the early ninth century.

King Frederick II wrote what is now widely accepted as the first comprehensive book of falconry, the De arte venandi cum avibus (“The Art of Hunting with Birds”). The treaty took him over thirty years to complete and is considered one of the first scientific works on birds’ anatomy and a founding book of ornithology.

Falconry soon became a popular sport and status symbol among medieval Europe’s nobles, as it required a commitment of time, money, and space.

Illuminated page from Latin translation of Moamin's treatise on falconry: "De scientia venandi per aves, etc. "copy from Yale Beinecke Library. Cortesía de Wikimedia Commons.

Medieval Wall

Medieval weapory can be divided into attacking and defensive, and also into cold weapons and firearms. Most popular were cold weapons, although by the end of this period the use of firearms increases, and they subsequently supersede the cold weapons.

By the downfall of the Roman Empire, so vanished its disciplined military organization, which was replaced in Europe by immigrant armies. Their military campaigns were participated by entire nations, which included all the layers of society. After settling in their newly conquered lands, they gradually lose their belligerence, turning more to a sedentary lifestyle, mainly agriculture. Warfare remains only among the narrow circle of nobility, future knights. Infantry loses its significance, and the primary focus is passed onto the knight’s horsemen. They were mostly armed with cold weapons (spear, sword, battle axe…), and were protected by armour. Infantry was used as a backup and mainly armed with bows. Throughout the entire Middle Ages the cavalry was predominant, only during the Hundred Years’ War (1337-1453) the infantry, armed with bows and arrows, becomes increasingly significant, and sometime later the Swiss footmen equipped with close combat weapons (spears, halberds) will have become extremely efficient soldiers. 1

The territories of Europe did not use the same weaponry. The Slavs were in shortage of iron, so they preferred ranged weapons. That is why Charlemagne banned selling weapons to Slavs and Avars. Later, other bans are introduced on a social level as well. Es decir. Frederick I Barbarossa (cca. 1122-1190) banned carrying or possession of weapons (spear or sword) to peasants. Travelling merchants were allowed to carry weapons, in order to defend themselves from robbers, but they were not allowed to carry them “in a knightly manner “, on their body, only attached to the saddle or inside the wagon. It was, in any way, harder for the lower classes to get a hold of weapons since they were costly. For example, it is a known fact that in Charlemagne’s time, a sword cost seven cows, and a spear two. 2

Cold weapons

The most common and well known weapon amongst the warriors of the Middle Ages were swords. 3 Swords of the noblemen were especially richly decorated and were also often attributed with supernatural powers. Though swords of other warriors were slightly more modest, they display excellent craftsmanship nevertheless. By a single stroke, they could pierce through metal, but also inflict a deadly wound to the enemy. 4

Apart from swords, another important weapon were sabres. This weapon originates from the East, from the equestrian tribes of middle Asia. They were later adopted by the Persians, as well as nations of India and Japan. They were brought to Europe during the Migration and were used by the Huns, Avars and Hungarians. However, with a gradual dominance of the sword as a primary medieval weapon, sabre vanishes from general use. It will reemerge in Europe during the Turkish invasion of this area. Later, many nations that were in contact with the Turks will readopt the sabre, i.e. the Polish will make it their national weapon (“karabela “). Its widespread use is also witnessed by the Hussar army that was assembled of defectors who were skilled in Turkish type of warfare, by the Hungarian king Mattias Corvinus in 1474 this light cavalry’s primary weapon was sabre. 5

Knives were a shorter type of weapon, consisting of a handle and a single blade. Since they were cheaper to make, they were most commonly used by peasants. Nowadays, it is hard to differentiate which of them were used as a weapon, or in hunting and everyday household activities.

Somewhat larger than knives were daggers. They were used for quick self-defence, by inflicting stab wounds, and also for putting the wounded out of misery. They were sometimes used in parallel with a sword, in a way that a warrior would hold a sword in one hand, and a dagger in the other. Due to its size, it could have easily been hidden in garments or various objects, which made it a very dangerous weapon. Even though they vanish from use in the early Middle Ages, they reappear throughout entire Europe during the 12th and 13th century. They became useful once more due to the evolution of heavy knights’ armours, which were tough to pierce with a sword or some larger weapon. Thin dagger blades were ideal for this purpose thus the knights use them increasingly, holding the sword in one hand, and the dagger in the other. 7

Both footmen and horsemen used spears, a weapon that consisted of a long pole on top of which was a blade with two, three or four edges. Spears had been used since prehistory, with no major changes in design. During the Middle Ages, spears were used by all European nations, especially Germanic and Norman tribes. 8

Imposing, but rarely used medieval weapons were battle axes. They had been used since Prehistory, and they consisted of a handle and a blade which was shaped either as a parallelogram, a crescent moon or a fan. In medieval Europe, they were mostly used by the Franks (francisca) and the Vikings. However, it should be mentioned that, even though legends often display axes as a most common weapon used by Vikings, this was, in fact, a much more modest weapon. They were mostly used by warriors who could not afford a sword. Most of the preserved battle axes, due to their modesty, cannot be distinguished from the ones that were used by lumberjacks. 9 Axe was used by knights in late Middle Ages, and some time later it will have been used, once again, by infantry. 10

Similar to axes were alabardas, which consisted of a long pole (1.80 – 2.40 m), on top of which there was a spear, an axe or a beak (not until the 16th century). Footmen used them for fighting against armoured knights. Halberds were first used by the Swiss soldiers-footmen fighting against armoured cavalry in the battle at Morgarten in 1315. This weapon was multi-functional since the spear was used for hitting or piercing the horseman, the axe was used for inflicting cut wounds, and the beak for unhorsing the horseman. It had a distinctive form in each country it was used in thus we can distinguish German, Swiss, Italian and Czech halberd. At the beginning of the 15th century, the halberd was pulled to the centre of the military formation and was replaced entirely by the spear in the next century. Nowadays, it is used only by the papal guard in the Vatican. 11

Although having appeared in as early as Prehistory, mace y morning star were characteristical medieval weapons. A mace consists of a short handle and a head split into flanges. Flanges were narrow and long in the 14th and 15th century, thus having been named “gothic “maces. Later, they became more round and triangular, and by the number of flanges, we can distinguish six-flanged, ten-flanged, twelve-flanged etc. By shape, it is similar to the morning star, the difference being that the morning star had a full bronze or iron head covered in spikes or pyramidal bulges. For their decorativity, both mace and morning star became symbols of dignity and honour in the Middle Ages, worn by civilians (town’s judges and noblemen), as well as military commanders. 12

Range weapons

Though they were often considered primitive weapon, slings were also used in warfare. They had been used since prehistory, and they were an extremely deadly weapon when used by skilled warriors. During the 15th century, there were entire mercenary fleets armed with slings. Such a fleet, for example, was a part of an army raised by Ivan Kapistran in 1456 for the defence of Belgrade. A large version of the sling was catapulta. It was mostly used during the siege. They were made of wood, and they were used for casting rocks. 13

During the Middle Ages, nevertheless, the most used weapons were arcos, which were one of the most efficient range weapons. They were made of wood (larch, ash, elm, maple, birch …), horn (ox, buffalo, goat, antelope), cane (bamboo) or metal (copper, bronze, steel). The tendon was made out of leather, entrails, vegetable fibres, horse hair or silk. Since they were sensitive to humidity, the archers wore spare tendons. Arrows consisted of a pointy top (flint, bone, iron, copper, hardwood), a shaft made of light wood and fletchings made of feathers. An archer carried 24 to 50 arrows in his sac. 14

Bows had been used since the Antique (Egypt, Assyria, Babylon), and they first appeared in Europe in Charlemagne’s army in the 8th century. The Hungarian and Tartarian cavalry particularly used bows and the most famous for this skill were the English and the Welsh, who were the most wanted bowmen in the period from the 13th until the 15th century. 15 Armoured knights did not use bows specially trained warrior bowmen were hired in battles. Apart from being trained in using a bow from childhood, bowmen also had to be trained in handling other sorts of weapons, which they would use in a battle after they have run out of arrows. A good bowman was able to fire twelve arrows per minute and hit a target in a range of 225 metres. English bowmen that were captivated by the French were punished severely. Thumbs on both of their hands were amputated, as well as index and middle finger on their right hand. Although it was not a primary weapon in Europe, some nations used bows as weapons almost exclusively. For example, Avars, Bulgarians, Huns, Hungarians and Mongols used them as their primary weapons. They circled the enemy riding fast horses, firing arrows at them. 16 From the 16th century onward, bows seized to be used, since they were replaced by firearms. 17

An advanced version of bow was ballesta, which is first used in the 11th century by the Normans, and later spread throughout the rest of Europe. 18 It was mainly a weapon used by footmen, although it was used by the cavalry as well. It was considered a hazardous weapon that brings certain death. A fact is that in 15th-century crossbow arrows pierced through helmets at a distance of 300 steps, and through a chest armour at 100 up to 125 steps. It is interesting that it had a larger range than the firearms of the same period. Its use was often banned, however, the bans did not hold, since it was used until the 17th century when more advanced firearms replace it. 19

Defensive weapons

In battles, as well as in individual knights’ conflicts, a warrior’s protection was critical. At the beginning, protection was provided by an outfit made out of leather (which will have been used throughout the entire Middle Ages by the lower cast) later, along with the evolution of blacksmith skills, warriors started to use metal protectors, first for some body parts, and later entire armours.

Apart from armours, protection was primarily contributed by shields, which had been used since Prehistory. They came in many sizes and shapes, and they were usually larger when used by infantry, while the cavalry used shields of smaller proportions. Shields seized to be used as a defensive weapon by the end of the 17th century but continued to be produced as decorative objects. 20

Helmets were also used since the earliest of times, and they were invented with the purpose to protect the nape and the vertex with their rear part, and the forehead, cheeks and ears with their front part. In 14th century, this shape is modified in a way that the cut around the eyes is more emphasized (barbuta, bacinet, beckenhaube). They could also have a moving part for the protection of the face – a visor. During the Middle Ages helmets were designed in different forms, and they were most often shaped like a hat, a bowl or a sphere. 21

For the protection of the body, mailed vests and armours were made. A mailed vest comes from the East, and it was brought to Europe through Byzantium in the 6th century. It was made of interwoven iron rings, and it was designed in the shape of a long-sleeved vest that descended to the knees. Later, metal plates were applied additionally on the chest, in order to make it stronger. Metal armour was allowed to be worn only by noblemen, which led to a competition among them in acquiring the most expensive and handsome specimen. It was designed as a stylistic whole, and it consisted of a helmet, a collar, straps, upper arm, elbow, forearm, and gloves. On joints of individual parts, there were movable plates which allowed for easier mobility. Apart from these battle armours, there were also exclusive tournament armors and specially decorated armours for solemn occasions. Medieval armours are divided into two primary types: Gothic and Maximillian. During the 16th century, they become slightly obsolete, due to the broader use of firearms. 22

Firearms

There is a great change in medieval armament and warfare with the appearance of firearms. It was preceded by the discovery of gunpowder, which dates back much earlier in history. An Indian document from 5th century BC contains a recipe for making an explosive compound. Apart from the Indians, the Chinese and the Arabs also knew gunpowder. It was the Arabs that first used small wooden hand mortars in the siege of the Spanish city of Alora in 712. 23 However, the Arabian wooden thrower from 12th century called madfaa, which fired nut-sized projectiles, is considered an immediate predecessor of firearms. 24

It is not known precisely when the Europeans began using gunpowder, but they were familiar with it during the 13th century. We find the first records of formulas in the works of Marco Graecus „Liber Ignium“, and they were also familiar to Albertus Magnus (1193-1280) and Roger Bacon (1215-1294). The Germans attribute the invention of gunpowder to Berthold Schwartz around 1320. 25

At the beginning, casting cold weapons (such as catapults) were much more efficient than firearms. Because of it, as well as religious fanaticism (firearms were considered the Devil’s invention), many countries refused to use it in their armament. 26

Primero cannons were used in the 14th century in the sieges of cities (Cividale, 1338), but they did not pose any serious threat at the time. Their purpose was mainly to scare since they produced much noise. The greater danger was for whoever loaded the barrel, since it often used to explode, thus injuring the person standing next to it. First specialized gun foundries were established in Augsburg in 1370, Venice in 1376, and in Dubrovnik in 1411. By the beginning of the 15th century, they were producing two types of cannons, the ones that cast stone balls, and the ones that cast lead and iron balls. The following data also tells of little strength of 15th-century cannons: their range was, at the time, 200 to 400 meters, and by the end of the century it went up to 600 meters, and the speed of shooting was only one ball per hour. Later, the artillery will have been improved, and finally, become a special branch. 27

Besides the cannons, along with the gunpowder, handheld firearms developed as well. During the 15th and 16th century, pipes with hooks on them were used, which represented transitional form from cannons to rifles. This weapon was called arquebus (hakenbüchse). Arquebuses were heavy bastion rifles, which had longer or shorter barrels, and were used for fortification defence and for signalling in case of the enemy approach. They were fired using a burning wick that was put against the back of the barrel. Matchlocks appeared around 1500, representing the first type of barrels planted in wood. At the side, there was a hook with a small head into which the wick was drawn, thus firing up the gunpowder charge inside the barrel. However, these guns had a series of flaws, for example, they could not be used in rainy weather, also they were an easy target for the enemy at night while lighting up the wick, and only footmen, and not cavalry, were able to use them. Nevertheless, around the beginning of the 16th century, there is an improved way of firing – by a wheel mechanism, and later by a flint. Pistols were developed in parallel with rifles, following their function mechanism. At first, they fired using a wick, and later, pistols running on the wheels and flint mechanisms were gradually introduced. 28

With the new era, new types of warfare are introduced, the knighthood seizes to exist, and hired warriors battle in the battlefield. Although cold weapons remained in use, they were gradually replaced by firearms, which were over time further improved. More extensive use of firearms is accompanied by a gradual discontinuance of the use of metal armour, which lost its purpose.

Related articles:

  • Friedrich I Barbarossa (around 1122-1190) banned the peasants from carrying or possession of weapons (spear or sword). He permitted the carrying of a sword to traveling merchants for the purpose of defense against the robbers, but they were not allowed to carry it in a „knightly manner“, on their body, but only on the saddle or inside the wagon.
  • Weapons were extremely expensive in the Middle Ages. Es decir. in Charlemagne’s time, a sword cost up to seven cows, and a spear two.
  • The invention of gunpowder dates back a long time, already in 5th century BC there was an Indian document that contained a recipe for an explosive compound.
  • Tony ALLAN, Vikinzi, Velike civilizacije, život, mit i umjetnost, Liber Novus d.o.o., Zagreb, 2008
  • Tomislav ARALICA, Noževi i bodeži na tlu Hrvatske od prapovijesti do 1945. godine, Gradski muzej Sisak, Sisak, 2008
  • Marilynne LANNG, Castles, A David & Charles Book, UK, 2005
  • Marija ŠERCER, Oružje u prošlosti, Povijesni muzej Hrvatske, Zagreb, 1980
  • Boško ŠILJEGOVIĆ (ed.), Vojna enciklopedija, Redakcija vojne enciklopedije, Beograd, 1960
    – volume 3, – halberd [Đurđica PETROVIĆ]
    – volume 3, – cold weapon [Dragoslav PILETIĆ]
    – volume 5, – bow and arrow [Vidak VUJNOVIĆ]
    – volume 10, – firearms [Vidak VUJNOVIĆ]
  • 1 Boško ŠILJEGOVIĆ (ed.), Vojna enciklopedija, volume 3, Redakcija vojne enciklopedije, Beograd, 1960, – cold weapons [Dragoslav PILETIĆ], 603-604
  • 2 Boško ŠILJEGOVIĆ (ur.) (note 1), 604
  • 3 We shall further discuss swords in a separate article.
  • 4 Marilynne LANNG, Castles, A David & Charles Book, UK, 2005, 146
  • 5 Marija ŠERCER, Oružje u prošlosti, Povijesni muzej Hrvatske, Zagreb, 1980, 15-16
  • 6 Marija ŠERCER (note 5), 14-15
  • 7 Tomislav ARALICA, Noževi i bodeži na tlu Hrvatske od prapovijesti do 1945. godine, Gradski muzej Sisak, Sisak, 2008, 11
  • 8 Marija ŠERCER (note 5), 9-10
  • 9 Tony ALLAN, Vikinzi, Velike civilizacije, život, mit i umjetnost, Liber Novus d.o.o., Zagreb, 2008, 128
  • 10 Marija ŠERCER (note 5), 11
  • 11 Boško ŠILJEGOVIĆ (ed.), Vojna enciklopedija, volume 3, Redakcija vojne enciklopedije, Beograd, 1960, – halberd [Đurđica PETROVIĆ], 535
  • 12 Marija ŠERCER (note 5), 12
  • 13 Marija ŠERCER (note 5), 20
  • 14 Boško ŠILJEGOVIĆ (ed.), Vojna enciklopedija, volume 5, Redakcija vojne enciklopedije, Beograd, 1960, – bow and arrow [Vidak VUJNOVIĆ], 267
  • 15 Marilynne LANNG (note 4), 146
  • 16 Boško ŠILJEGOVIĆ (ed.) (note 14), 268
  • 17 Marija ŠERCER (note 5), 21
  • 18 The opinions on its origin differ. One group of explorers claims Far East as its origin, and it was supposedly used by Phoenicians, Greeks and Romans, while others consider that the crossbow was expressly a Western European weapon, unknown to the East. (See: Marija ŠERCER, note 5, 21)
  • 19 Marija ŠERCER (note 5), 21
  • 20 Marija ŠERCER (note 5), 18
  • 21 Marija ŠERCER (note 5), 18-19
  • 22 Marija ŠERCER (note 5), 20
  • 23 Marija ŠERCER (note 5), 22
  • 24 Boško ŠILJEGOVIĆ (ed.), Vojna enciklopedija, volume 10, Redakcija vojne enciklopedije, Beograd, 1960, – armas de fuego [Vidak VUJNOVIĆ], 384
  • 25 Marija ŠERCER (note 5), 22
  • 26 Boško ŠILJEGOVIĆ (ur.) (note 24), 384
  • 27 Marija ŠERCER (note 5), 22-23
  • 28 Marija ŠERCER (note 5), 24-27

Comentarios

I’m not that much of a online reader to be honest but your blogs really nice, keep it
up! I’ll go ahead and bookmark your website to come back later
sobre. Muchas gracias

mykaela Nov 12, 2014 u 6:00 PM

Amberbock Mike Nov 27, 2014 u 8:28 AM

Mykaela, history is too long to read. This post is well researched and informative. If it is too long for you to read, then you probably are not capable of understanding it. I do, and I appreciate the work required for this article.

mona May 22, 2015 u 2:41 PM

very useful …………tell us to many things about medieval india…………

Gracias. Well researched and thought out blog. Not too long at all- armed with informative facts.

Lydia Sep 09, 2017 u 5:00 AM

THIS HELPED ME SOO MUCH! I was frantically searching the internet, looking for medieval weapon information, and none of the stuff I found was helpful, then I came across this, and I am so relieved! This has all the information I need! Muchas gracias.

Jacob Batton Apr 09, 2018 u 11:41 PM

Dreyvan Feb 26, 2019 u 3:38 AM

Thanks for the information, but please make it easier to find and relate.


Medieval Crossbows and Accessories

As a weapon, the medieval crossbow was regarded with great respect and one of short range deadliness in the hands of almost anyone. As the long bow required extensive training and strength, most users were trained nearly from birth, as it was an excellent choice for longer range targets. The crossbow was easy to learn and given in great numbers to the average soldier as a solution for short range targets. It was the forerunner of short range attack weapons which gave way eventually to the effectiveness of gun powder arms. Silent, deadly and efficient, it remains today a choice for the sportsman and in other situations where silence is needed to obtain the target.
Its history is found in the fifth century B.C. in China with numerous archaeological digs revealing brass bolts and brass trigger mechanisms and writings as early as fourth century B.C. discussing the use of repeating crossbow mechanisms and descriptions of their use in battle. These historical documents showed that crossbow strategy was similar to what was developed later for the musket and was even used while mounted on horses with cavalry formations.

In the meantime, the Greeks began to develop a slightly different style of crossbow around the same time period. They used torsion or twisted movement in their early models although this was eventually found only in their catapults, an ingenious twist, literally, that produced much more power. These earlier, smaller versions required a prop to use and were actually made with a concave design that allowed the user to use core body strength to operate it by pressing forward with his abdomen . These eventually gave way to being mounted and in place on walls, probably due to the internal injuries and complaints from the users caused by consistent use of them, and then the design moved into their catapults.

The Romans had hand held mechanical weapons that were a combination of both the Asian and Greek influence. This was typical of the Romans as they were great copiers of both weapons and armor of their enemies and took the best ideas from both of these cultures to produce their own. Written history emerges around the fourth century B.C. of their defeat by the hands of the Chinese who were able to penetrate their body armor with their hand held catapults, which was around the time these were put to use in the Roman armies.
By the Fifth century AD, there are records of them in use in Scotland by the Picts as hunting weapons. The styles of medieval crossbows that we now see were used by European armies through the 1500’s. Both mounted and on foot, the crossbowmen were mixed in with the rest of the troops and were a popular choice of weapon until the enemy bore down on you requiring a quick transfer to short sword, knife or pole axe. The beauty of this strategy made good offensive sense and the fact that even the peasants, with very little training, could be armed with a crossbow easily made the weapon a huge success. Pole axe and crossbow was the typical peasant weaponry which worked in the better trained armies as well.

The crossbow encouraged the development of mail armor or chainmail under regular plate armor which salvaged the day for many a soldier under the brutal and effective onslaught of crossbowmen. It literally changed battlefield strategy when it first appeared as completely as the introduction of short range gun powder weapons did. A very valuable asset to any medieval soldier, the medieval crossbow, found in several designs throughout Medieval times, was the weapon that produced fear in its enemies and was the choice of the silent assassin and snipers that could quickly ambush and overtake much larger armies than themselves.
It can be found in the history of every continent in a variety of cultures from ancient times and continues today as a respected hunting weapon. The medieval crossbow was only one stop in a very, very long road through man’s story of hunting and warfare but an instrument of such cunning design that it still intrigues us today.

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Comentarios

The writer makes light of the impact of the longbow, suggestion that crossbows were more deadly. At short range the crossbow had good hitting power, but the bolt lost impetus quite quickly and was of little use at longer distances, The shafts from a longbow were effective throughout its whole range, which was between 200 and 300 yards. Different types of arrowhead were developed which dealt well with different types of armour. However complete penetration was not always necessary as blunt trauma could kill, or at least take a knight off his feet - many were unable to rise and suffocated in the mud, The longbow could also be used rapidly, the crossbowman needed a pavise projection while he laboriously spanned the bow for the next shot. Experiments have proved the penetration capabilities of the longbow, while it is known that many longbowmen were capable of sending an arrow into the small slits between the plates of armour, or into a visor.


Autores de ficción histórica inglesa

The Knight in shining armour conjures up one of the most evocative images of the medieval period.

Between the 11th and 17th century the nobility made their mark on Europe. In life, they ruled the population, its economics, life style, fashions, and history. Great books were written for the wealthy, large houses and castles built, sonnets written and ballads sung. They displayed their wealth and strength, which often meant the male’s role in battle and his ability to fight and protect his land and himself.

If we look at the tapestry that made 1066 a year that changed the history of England, we will see a collection of images that represent men at arms dressed in mail coats with conical helmets and long kite shaped shields. Some have mail leggings whilst many have no armour at all, but those stylised images show how men dressed for war in the 11th century. See fig A

Mail changed little throughout the eleventh, twelfth and thirteenth century with the exception of minor details. The shape of the helmet changed from the typical Norman conical shape to the rounded skullcap and then to the cylindrical shaped helm. Metal knee protection appeared in the early thirteenth century and the shield decreased in size but overall the main form of defence remained mail. See fig B and C

In the early fourteenth century, something happened that would start an arms race that lasted three hundred years. The capability of producing large quantities of iron and steel. Moreover, it is from this period that the armourer begins to develop the methods of plate armour production. See fig D

The modern fighting soldier’s idea of warfare has no bearing on the medieval knight’s ideal. Warfare had its political and social reasons just as today, but the social elite could use warfare as an income and a method of elevating their status. The capture and ransoming of a wealthy knight might ensure he survived a battle. Thus, the ability to show ones wealth in battle became important.

The knight not only needed armour as a form of physical protection but also needed it to convey his wealth and standing. Thus, the development of armour changed from a purely defensive matter and moved into the realm of visual display. The knight became a deadly peacock, using the bright colours of heraldry to distinguish each other on the battlefield and in tournament.

Heraldry had arisen in the 11th century with simple patterns, designs and pictures, and over a five hundred year period would developed into a complex method of recognising individuals and families. The main areas on a knight that displayed heraldic arms were the shield, the surcoat and the crest. In most circumstances the crest is the only surviving clue to the heraldic design of an individual that can be found on an effigy, this being part of the headrest. In some cases, the shield and jupon have a coat-of-arms carved into them, some even retaining original colours.

During the late 13th c. plate protection was added to mail armour, arm and leg protection being strapped onto mail. The surcoat was shortened at the front becoming the Cyclas. The knight wore a padded aketon underneath his mail coat or Haubergeon above this, a coat of plates may have been worn. See figure E.

By the mid 14thc plate protection had superseded mail on the arms. On legs plate was used but often took the form of studded leather and metal splints. The surcoat had been replaced by the much shorter and tighter jupon. See figure F. A horizontal belt with plaquarts plus gilded edging was now added to the harness and the bascinet and aventail became universally used throughout Europe.

The early 15thc saw the development of the great bascinet with its gorget and the first full plate suits of armour appear. The average thickness of the steel used was around 1.5 millimetres but certain areas such as the breastplate or helmet could be made thicker. See figure G.

By the late 15thc the intricate gothic styles in German armour increases. See figure H. but in England, the plainer Italian style is preferred. However, the sallet eventually took over from the Great bascinet.

During the early Tudor period Italian style armour with plain surfaces. See figure I. appears on many effigies In reality the use of heavily fluted armour (Later to be called Maximilian) was used throughout Europe. The development of the close-helmet that hid the head completely meant that the effigy maker often replaced the traditional helm as headrest with this form of helmet.

The Elizabethan period saw the development of increased articulated lames, heat-treated coloured metal and elaborate decoration. The Joust became the showpiece for armour with knights displaying their wealth through highly decorated garnitures, designed to have interchanging parts for different forms of tournament. Added pieces some being up to three millimetres thick, were used to reinforce original suits. See figure J.

During the 17th century the development of heavier thicker plates to stop the round shot from guns meant that armour became utilitarian and plain. See figure K. The idea of knighthood did not disappear and elaborate harnesses that had no place on the battlefield were produced for the new officer class See figure L.

En mi libro, The History of Armour 1100-1700 published by Crowood Press, I attempt to give an account of the changes of armour. Looking at details that make a suit of armour, from the methods of construction to the way it was worn and the way fashion dictated changes in armour design. It is hoped that this book will not only enlighten students of arms and armour but also give an insight to the art of the effigy maker, showing the skills they possessed through reproducing the armour and weaponry of their period in wood, stone and metal.

I trained in graphic communication specializing in illustration. Afterwards, I moved into adult education where I taught fine art, photography, digital imaging, animation and illustration. I have given lectures in armour and weapons as an historical interpreter for English Heritage, and various other History groups, specializing in the development of armour as well as the chivalric roles of the medieval Knight. I have a lifelong interest in historical warfare and its politics, which played a huge role in the evolution of military advancement.


Referencias

Bennett, M. “Military Masculinity in England and Northern France c.1050-c. 1225.” 1999. In Masculinity in Medieval Europe , ed. D. M. Hadley. New York: Addison Wesley Longman Limited.

Felix of Crowland. Life of Saint Guthlac . 1848. Ed. y trans. Charles Wycliffe Goodwin. London: John Russell Smith.

O'Keeffe, Katherine O’Brien. “Heroic values and Christian ethics.” 1991. In The Cambridge Companion to Old English Literature , ed. M. Godden and M. Lapidge. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


Recreating the glory of history

The historical period, when power and valor were the sole identity of a person, when blood was the staple food of weapons, and life had no meaning other than chivalry, can be easily recreated through our Armor Products. We, KHUKRIWALA HANDICRAFTS, are involved in manufacturing and exporting Armor Products that are an exact replica of the one used in historical periods, especially in the 5th to 15th century. Our range of Armor Products includes Armor Axes, Armor Daggers, Armor Helmets, Armor Kukri Knives, Armor Swords, Chest Armors, AE02 Crossbow, AX56 Long Spear etc. We make use of this research for designing and developing our Armor Products. Our dedicated craftsmen make intensive efforts to put every minute detail while crafting the Products so as to maintain originality in design. Consequently, our Handicraft Products are the perfect imitation of the articles used during ancient times. At present, we are serving the markets of USA and Europe and looking forward for more growth in terms of expansion in the international market. Lee mas.


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